Confidence, complacency, convenience model of vaccine hesitancy

The 3C (Confidence, Complacency, Convenience) Model of Vaccine Hesitancy was developed by the SAGE Working Group to map three main factors that influence vaccine uptake: confidence barriers, complacency barriers and convenience barriers.


The 3C model was developed by the SAGE Working Group to map three main factors that influence vaccine uptake: confidence barriers, complacency barriers and convenience barriers. If your goal is to increase vaccination rates within a particular community, the following prompts can inform the development of questions in your focus groups and surveys. Analysing data through the lens of the 3C model will also enable you to identify where the key barriers lie within the particular group and target these with your behavioural interventions.

Confidence barriers

Does the group believe that...

  • The vaccine is safe?
  • The vaccine is effective?
  • The system and people who deliver the vaccine are reliable and competent?
  • The motivations of policy makers and NHS can be trusted?

Complacency barriers

Does the group believe that...

  • The risk from contracting COVID is high?
  • Catching COVID can negatively impact their and their close ones’ lives?

Convenience barriers

Does the group believe that...

  • They are physically able to get vaccinated?
  • They can afford to get vaccinated?
  • They live in a region and community where it is possible to get vaccinated?
  • They are able to understand the purpose of vaccination (health and language literacy)?
  • The quality of vaccination service is appropriate?
  • The time and place for getting the vaccination is appropriate?
  • The group’s cultural context supports getting vaccinated?

References

WHO (2014). Report Of The Sage Working Group On Vaccine Hesitancy

MacDonald (2015). Vaccine hesitancy: Definition, scope and determinants